Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease when the body cannot properly regulate blood glucose levels. A deficiency can cause these in insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate blood glucose levels, or by a resistance to insulin. There are two main types of diabetes mellitus: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the body destroys the cells responsible for producing insulin. Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for the majority of cases, is characterized by insulin resistance and often occurs in individuals who are overweight or obese.
If left untreated, diabetes mellitus can lead to complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis, a potentially life-threatening condition caused by a deficiency in insulin and an excess of certain hormones called ketones. Therefore, it is essential for individuals with diabetes to monitor their blood glucose levels closely and manage their condition through a combination of medications, diet, and physical activity.
Symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes may include weight loss, increased hunger, glycosuria, glucose in the urine, dehydration, thirst, and fatigue. These symptoms occur because the body cannot properly utilize glucose, leading to the breakdown of fat and protein for energy and an increase in the production of ketones.
Treatment for diabetes mellitus typically involves insulin therapy, which helps to regulate blood sugar levels by enabling cells to use glucose for energy. Other medications may be used to help increase insulin production or sensitivity or to help lower blood sugar levels. In addition to drugs, individuals with diabetes may be advised to follow a healthy diet and engage in regular physical activity to help manage their condition.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a severe complication of diabetes mellitus that can occur even in individuals who are receiving insulin therapy. A deficiency causes insulin and an excess of ketones in the blood, which increases the blood’s acidity. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include deep and labored breathing, hyperkalemia, and a high anion gap in the blood. Therefore, it is crucial for individuals with diabetes to be aware of the signs of diabetic ketoacidosis and to seek medical treatment immediately if they occur.
Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy and is caused by pregnancy hormones that interfere with insulin production and action. Women with gestational diabetes may be advised to follow a healthy diet and engage in regular physical activity to help manage their condition. If left uncontrolled, gestational diabetes can lead to complications such as preterm delivery, high blood sugar levels in the newborn, and an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
Drug-induced diabetes is a form of diabetes that can occur as a side effect of certain medications, such as steroids, antipsychotics, and beta blockers. Therefore, it is essential for individuals taking these medications to be aware of the potential risk of developing diabetes and monitor their blood sugar levels regularly.
In conclusion, diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels. It is caused by a deficiency in insulin or insulin resistance and can lead to complications if left untreated. Diabetes treatment involves insulin therapy and lifestyle modifications, such as a healthy diet and regular physical activity. It is essential for individuals with diabetes to be aware of the signs and symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes and to seek medical treatment to help manage their condition.
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